Recently, I was invited to give a “last sermon,” as is a popular trend these days.  At first I pondered various topics that are dear to me.  Then I considered how I would want to be sure my words lived on after me.  I realized there was no better way to ensure this than by echoing the words of those whose profound teachings have already proven the test of time and/or rigorous scrutiny. 

Also, in the rabbinic tradition, I thought it appropriate to use a method that would be given to easy memorization.  So I decided to exploit that most revered method of the top ten list.  In addition to being an outline of my hypothetical “last sermon,” I intend this to be a handy reference for those of you who are now putting together your summer reading list. 

So here we go—profound lessons from ten great Christian minds.  All of these lessons are practical, but some are more personal than others.  I will begin with the more public and civic themes and drive to those which are moral and personal.  Also, I tried to order these chronologically, but couldn’t quite pull that off.  Still, with a few exceptions, they do go in chronological order.

Lesson #1—Augustine (5th century):  Remember that you are a citizen of another kingdom.  Augustine is the greatest theologian of the first millennium of the Christian era, and his ideas have shaped the thoughts of every Christian since, to one degree or another.  In his magnum opus, The City of God, Augustine notes that there are two great cities:  the earthly city—a perishing, imperfect order, with human rulers, typified by the Roman Empire—and the heavenly city, an imperishable, perfect order where God rules.  These cities are distinguished by their loves, respectively of self and of God.  When the two come into conflict, remember where your ultimate citizenship lies.

Lesson #2—Martin Luther (16th century):  Expect politicians to be corrupt.  Have you ever wondered why politicians tend to be so corrupt?  Have you ever considered why God allows this to happen—why he permits such smarmy people as the former Illinois governor, Rod Blagojevich, to get into power?  Luther gives a simple and strangely encouraging answer:  It is because our leaders reflect us.  As a people, frankly, we don’t deserve any better.  In fact, having corrupt leaders keeps us humble and reminds us of the heavenly city of which we are citizens first.  As Luther puts it in his powerful little essay “On Secular Authority,” “Frogs must have their storks.”  Keep this in mind, and you’ll be wiser without becoming cynical.  You’ll be wiser because you won’t be gullible, and you won’t be cynical because you’ll know that God does occasionally bless us with some morally decent public leaders, though they may be rare.

Lesson #3—Thomas Aquinas (13th century):  God has made himself known in nature.  Aquinas was a Dominican priest who has been more influential than perhaps any other Christian theologian.  In his massive Summa Theologica he emphasized the fact that while scripture gives us a wealth of theological knowledge, nature and experience also provide knowledge of God, which Aquinas calls “natural theology.”  This is crucial because:  1) it reminds us that no one has an excuse not to believe in God (as Paul explains the first chapter of Romans) and 2) it inspires us to learn about God in all that we study, not just scripture.  Science, history, psychology, math, and every other subject teach us about God.  In fact, this idea is the inspiration of the concept of a liberal arts college, like the one where I teach.

Lesson #4—John Calvin (16th century):  God is sovereign over all, including our suffering.  Calvin was not only a great Church Reformer, but he wrote the only systematic theology to come out of the Protestant Reformation:  The Institutes of the Christian Religion. The lesson of God’s sovereignty is far from being uniquely Calvinist, since it was emphasized by Augustine and Luther and many other great Christian theologians.  But for various reasons it is most commonly associated with Calvin, perhaps partly because he articulated this point as clearly and eloquently as anyone.  In any case, it is a teaching plainly taught in Scripture, most clearly in such passages as Psalm 139, James 1:2-4, and Romans 8:28.

Lesson #5—Jonathan Edwards (18th century):  God is beautiful, and all beauty is divine.  The fine historian Mark Noll—who spoke here at Taylor last week—has called Jonathan Edwards the “greatest evangelical mind.”  If that isn’t an incentive to study this man’s brilliant work, then nothing is.  Like Augustine, Luther, and Calvin, Edwards emphasized the sovereignty of God.  Everything God does, he does for his own glory.  This is, in fact, the point of history and the point of your life and mine:  the glory of God.  But Edwards recognized that the concept of glory is essentially an aesthetic concept.  It falls within the category of beauty.  So what this world is all about is showing the beauty of God.  And all of our longing for beauty—whether in the form of art, good music, good films, poetry, or the beauty of other people—is really an aspect of our longing for the One who is beauty itself.  And all of the finitely beautiful things we experience are so many expressions of God’s beauty.

Lesson #6—Thomas a’Kempis (15th century):  Practice self-denial with a passion.  Born in Prussia in 1380 to a peasant family, Thomas entered a monastery in the Netherlands at age 20.  As a monk he penned the great classic Of the Imitation of Christ, which has been translated into more languages than any other book except the Bible.  The theme of the book regards how to faithfully follow Christ, but more specifically it is focused on humility and self-denial, the defining characteristics of Christ, as we learn in Philippians 2:5-11, where Paul tells us to imitate Christ in being a radical servant.  If even the God-man refused to lay claim to his rights, then what does this say about the approach we should take?  a’Kempis unpacks this theme in profound ways that will transform your life if you put them into practice.

Lesson #7—John Wesley (18th century):  Be disciplined and make the best use of your time.  Wesley was the founder of the Methodist church and very much a social activist, known as much for his organizational and motivational skills as for his Christian preaching.  Wesley worked especially hard on two major social justice issues of his day:  prison reform and the abolition of slavery.  He also devoted himself diligently to the spiritual disciplines and the pursuit of holiness and personal sanctification.  Wesley was never idle but worked constantly.  Early on in his life he resolved to live on a certain modest amount of money, and despite the huge increases in his personal income, he died with few possessions, having given away his wealth to people in need.

Lesson #8—Fyodor Dostoevsky (19th century):  God’s grace can reach anyone.  Dostoevsky was a Russian novelist who is sometimes regarded as the greatest writer next to Shakespeare.  His insight into human nature is profound, and this, combined with his Christian sensibility, make reading him immensely profitable.  Dostoevsky nearly didn’t survive to have a long writing career.  When he was in his twenties he was arrested for being part of an insurrection and sentenced to death, but the death sentence was revoked and he was sent to a prison camp instead—an experience which had a lasting impact on his life and thought.  In his classic novel Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky paints the portrait of a young man, Raskolnikov, who dares to challenge the concept of moral law through murder.  As Raskolnikov is consumed by guilt, so is the reader.  But the reader also vicariously participates in the severe divine grace that finds this seemingly hopeless man.  Nowhere else in the history of literature is there a more compelling picture of Christian redemption.

Lesson #9—Dietrich Bonhoeffer (20th century):  Beware of cheap grace.  Bonhoeffer was another Christian thinker who took part in an insurrection (a plot to kill Adolf Hitler).  Bonhoeffer, too, was sentenced to death.  In this case, however, the death sentence was not revoked and he was hung with his conspirators just prior to the end of World War II.  Fortunately, however, Bonhoeffer had already completed many great works of theology, including his classic book The Cost of Discipleship.  This work contains profound insights into the importance of self-denial and suffering for the Christian, thus echoing the same emphasis in Augustine, a’Kempis, Calvin, and Edwards.  Bonhoeffer distinguishes between cheap grace (preaching forgiveness without repentance) and costly grace (which is premised upon repentance).  There is no such thing as cheap grace, Bonhoeffer reminds us.  Jesus tells us to take up our cross and turn from sin.  If we don’t do so, then we are not truly under grace.

Lesson #10—Alvin Plantinga (21st century):  Moral virtue is crucial for intellectual health.  Plantinga is one of the premier Christian thinkers of the last generation.  At a time when theists were retreating in the philosophical community, he had the temerity to suggest that belief in God is not only reasonable but is in fact a proper starting placefor knowledge.  This was, of course, axiomatic for the Reformers, but Plantinga made a persuasive philosophical case for the idea.  In light of this insight, he has developed a rich Christian psychology (especially in his Warranted Christian Belief), complete with an arresting account of how sin corrupts cognition and how, correlatively, right living is crucial for the proper function of our cognitive faculties.  Virtue, as it turns out, is as important for the mind as the mind is for the life of virtue.

21 Responses to “Ten Lessons from Great Christian Minds”

  1. Andrew


    Excellent. Thanks, Jim. I look forward to see your “handy reference” for summer reading.

  2. S. Hoover


    Dr. Spiegel,

    I see here you went with Plantinga rather than Bono. Good move. Even though I like Bono’s new album quite a bit, I appreciate the Plantinga quote more.

    It made me think of a debate I listened to the other night on the historical legitimacy of the resurrection. William Lane Craig was debating a guy whose arguments seemed weak even to me–an undergrad whose never taken a single philosophy class. I did notice though that what he lacked in rigorous argument he made up for in downright meanness.

    Connection there?

  3. Kaitlyn Dugan


    Dr. Spiegel:

    Your list is excellent but I must say that Karl Barth should be in there between 1 and 5. If you’ve never done so, read “The Humanity of God.” Sheer beauty.

  4. Andy


    This is a fantastic list. Christians today should take great comfort in the knowledge that the problems we encounter today are not new – they have been faced by Christians for centuries.

    Many today worry about economic uncertainty, national decline, abuse of political power, hostility toward biblical Christianity, etc. But we need only look to these great examples in the past. Augustine was no stranger to national decline and an uncertain future. Luther was very familiar with the pursuit, accumulation, and abuse of power (whether political or ecclesiastical). Dostoevsky lived during a time of strife between the Tsarist autocracy and the anarchist Nihilists trying to topple them. Bonhoeffer watched his country descend into the cult of Nazism.

    “Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses…”

    (As an aside, I had your class my senior year in college, and it was one of the only ones I kept the notes from, and still occasionally reference. I had no idea you had a blog until Justin Taylor linked to you today!)

  5. zadok


    This is a really good list. Perhaps Kierkegaard or Pascal could be added for the sake of reminding us all that Christian existence is always concerned and committed existence. Where life is lived without absolute commitment and infinite concern, life is lived without Christianity.

  6. Truth Unites... and Divides


    If you had put Barth’s name on the list, you would have discredited your entire list.

  7. Jeffrey Lo


    @Truth Unites… and Divides: I quite often enjoy your comments on other blogs (teampyro, etc.), but your statement isn’t helpful to anyone following this thread. Please elaborate!

  8. chris


    loved it!
    BTW- we had our last “tour” of the Truth Project last night. So grateful to be His daughter!

  9. Truth Unites... and Divides


    Jeffrey Lo,

    Barth is highly regarded, no doubt about it. But overall, neo-orthodoxy has been a net negative. (A subjective opinion to be sure).


  10. Roberto Vargas Jr.


    Nice “last sermon”!
    I am working on a translation into Portuguese in order to publish it at my blog, if you don’t mind. I just have to mention that I better suppress some sentences that don’t make sense for Brazilian reality. But, of course, I will put the link to your page.
    In Christ love,

  11. Roberto Vargas Jr.


    It is published. You may check it if you want, but all my blog is in Portuguese. I made the translation as best as I can but I aways find it difficult to do. It’s not the same as simply understand another language!
    In Christ,

    • Jim Spiegel


      Yes, C. S. Lewis certainly deserves consideration. And, all things considered, he probably could be placed ahead of Bonhoeffer and Plantinga. But my focus in compiling the list was more on singular themes which emerge from the works of these figures (as opposed to overall quality of work). Still, several such themes/lessons are to be found in Lewis’s work which are worthy of inclusion. Wright, too, is a good suggestion, but I wouldn’t put him in the same category as Lewis or even Plantinga…at least not yet.

  12. Tom


    No list would be complete without Charles G. Finney, often overlooked, but not only the most influential Christian of the 19th century but perhaps the most important person to the US at that time. It is my belief his ministry and the revivals that occurred during it shaped our country and led to the end of slavery, although he himself opposed the war and any use of force.

  13. seanearlyaug


    I understand, then, that you do not hold with the prosperity Gospel?
    Nor do I, but some do.


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